Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy, ionizing rays to harm malignant cancer cells in order to stop them from dividing and growing.
A receptor is a protein molecule on the surface or interior of a cell that allows it to recognize specific molecules like hormones, reversibly bind to them, and respond with a change in the cell or in the chemicals it produces. The receptors are involved in the first step of a cascade also involving transducers and effectors that allow cells to capture, translate, and respond to chemical signals from within the body or from the environment.
Recombination is the exchange of genes between chromosomes (typically by crossing-over) that occurs during the production of gametes and results in a unique combination of genetic material. Recombination allows for the introduction of genetic variation and is a key aspect of sexual reproduction.
The rectum is the final portion of the large intestine, measuring approximately 12 centimeters in length. It is the temporary storage site for feces before defecation.
A regimen is a plan of health maintenance, often with respect to diet, therapy, and/or general prescribed treatment.
Relaxin is a protein hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary, as well as other male and female reproductive organs. It is thought to play important roles in preparing the reproductive tract for birth and the changes that occur in the mother's cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Loss of relaxin in pregnant female mice results in an inability to feed their newborn pups due to impaired nipple development.
Sexual reproduction refers to the creation of new offspring by parents, while asexual reproduction occurs when organisms are able to reproduce on their own.
A subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) which focuses on the treatment of infertility. An REI specialist may use a combination of surgerys, procedures, and medicine in attempt to help a couple achieve pregnancy. These specialists are sometimes referred to as “infertility doctors” or “fertility specialist."
A condition in which the ejaculate is redirected into the bladder during climax. As a result, little or no sperm exits the body during climax, making it difficult for men with this condition to impregnate a women through intercourse.
A uterus that tilts posteriorly at the cervix
A technique which involves the injection of a round, immobile spermatid into an oocyte in attempt to achieve fertilization and eventually, pregnancy. This technique may allow males who do not produce fully mature sperm to become biological fathers.