Azoospermia is the medical term for a condition in which no measurable amount of sperm is present in a male’s semen. Genetic, idiopathic, and iatrogenic factors can result in this condition. There are two types of azoospermia: obstructive azoospermia, which refers to problems in sperm transport from the testis to the penis, and non-obstructive azoospermia, which refers to defects in sperm production. Because of the lack of sperm in the ejaculate, azoospermia results in infertility and sterility. However, depending on the type of azoospermia, certain assisted reproductive technology procedures, such as TESE and ICSI, can be used to help a man affected by this condition conceive a child.